Commit 3bf7bb22 authored by Eugen Rochko's avatar Eugen Rochko

Add basic server instructions

parent 1c87608e
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...@@ -5,20 +5,109 @@ menu: ...@@ -5,20 +5,109 @@ menu:
parent: administration parent: administration
weight: 1 weight: 1
--- ---
## Basic server setup (optional) ## Basic server setup (optional)
If you are setting up a fresh machine, it is recommended that you secure it first: If you are setting up a fresh machine, it is recommended that you secure it first. Assuming that you are running **Ubuntu 18.04**:
### Do not allow password-based SSH login (keys only)
First make sure you are actually logging in to the server using keys and not via a password, otherwise this will lock you out. Many hosting providers support uploading a public key and automatically set up key-based root login on new machines for you.
Edit `/etc/ssh/sshd_config` and find `PasswordAuthentication`. Make sure it's uncommented and set to `no`. If you made any changes, restart sshd:
```sh
systemctl restart ssh
```
### Update system packages
```sh
apt update && apt upgrade -y
```
### Install fail2ban so it blocks repeated login attempts
- Do not allow password-based SSH login (keys only) ```sh
- Update system packages apt install fail2ban
- Install fail2ban so it blocks repeated login attempts ```
- Install a firewall and only whitelist SSH, HTTP and HTTPS ports
Edit `/etc/fail2ban/jail.local` and put this inside:
```ini
[DEFAULT]
destemail = your@email.here
sendername = Fail2Ban
[sshd]
enabled = true
port = 22
[sshd-ddos]
enabled = true
port = 22
```
Finally restart fail2ban:
```sh
systemctl restart fail2ban
```
### Install a firewall and only whitelist SSH, HTTP and HTTPS ports
First, install iptables-persistent. During installation it will ask you if you want to keep current rules--decline.
```sh
apt install -y iptables-persistent
```
Edit `/etc/iptables/rules.v4` and put this inside:
```
*filter
# Allow all loopback (lo0) traffic and drop all traffic to 127/8 that doesn't use lo0
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT ! -i lo -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j REJECT
# Accept all established inbound connections
-A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
# Allow all outbound traffic - you can modify this to only allow certain traffic
-A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT
# Allow HTTP and HTTPS connections from anywhere (the normal ports for websites and SSL).
-A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
# Allow SSH connections
# The -dport number should be the same port number you set in sshd_config
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
# Allow ping
-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT
# Log iptables denied calls
-A INPUT -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables denied: " --log-level 7
# Reject all other inbound - default deny unless explicitly allowed policy
-A INPUT -j REJECT
-A FORWARD -j REJECT
COMMIT
```
With iptables-persistent, that configuration will be loaded at boot time. But since we are not rebooting right now, we need to load it manually for the first time:
```sh
iptables-restore < /etc/iptables/rules.v4
```
## Pre-requisites ## Pre-requisites
- A machine running Ubuntu 18.04 that you have root access to - A machine running **Ubuntu 18.04** that you have root access to
- A domain name (or a subdomain) for the Mastodon server - A **domain name** (or a subdomain) for the Mastodon server, e.g. `example.com`
- An e-mail delivery service or other **SMTP server**
You will be running the commands as root. If you aren't already root, switch to root: You will be running the commands as root. If you aren't already root, switch to root:
......
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